Friday, 22 January 2016

Robô coreano em Davos abre discussão sobre substituir o homem pela máquina

ihu
http://www.ihu.unisinos.br/noticias/551042-robo-coreano-em-davos-abre-discussao-sobre-substituir-o-homem-pela-maquina

Robô coreano em Davos abre discussão sobre substituir o homem pela máquina

Ele é coreano e se chama Hubo. No Fórum Econômico Mundial de Davos, na Suíça, que começou nesta quarta-feira (20), ele dividiu os holofotes com representantes do Facebook,JPMorganGoogle e Alibaba, bem como com vários políticos do mundo inteiro. No entanto oHubo, com sua cara de astronauta, não é um humano, mas sim um robô. Ele sabe fazer quase tudo, como dirigir um carro, sair dele, subir escadas, fazer consertos e, é claro, manter uma conversa.
A reportagem é de Philippe Escande, publicada por Le Monde, 21-01-2016.
Hubo é o espelho de nosso futuro, ou pelo menos aquele imaginado pelos organizadores do célebre fórum. Em 2016 seu tema será a "quarta revolução industrial", uma expressão que designa a nova onda tecnológica que se anuncia, liderada pela conjunção de avanços em matéria de inteligência artificial, de nano e biotecnologias ou ainda de impressão 3D.
O que traz uma questão que surge sempre que se fala em progresso tecnológico: os robôs vão substituir os homens. Não é algo impossível, de acordo com o estudo bastante detalhado que o fórum acaba de realizar junto aos departamentos de recursos humanos de empresas de 15 países que representam 65% dos funcionários do mundo. Ele afirma que a difusão dessas inovações deverá resultar, nos próximos cinco anos, na extinção de quase 7,1 milhões de empregos e na criação de somente 2 milhões, ou seja, uma perda líquida de 5 milhões. 
Isso não ajudará em nada a economia mundial, uma vez que ao mesmo tempo a Organização Internacional do Trabalho (OIT) prevê 11 milhões de desempregados a mais no mundo até 2020, segundo a Reuters. A primeira população afetada será a dos funcionários de escritório, que corresponderão a dois terços dos empregos extintos.
Grande mudança
Já era algo de se esperar, uma vez que, como seu nome indica, a inteligência artificial tem vocação para substituir a inteligência humana. Essa substituição já está em andamento, com máquinas que sabem escrever artigos de jornal, fazer um diagnóstico médico ou dar assessoria jurídica e financeira.
Essa grande mudança, bastante dolorosa, não é uma novidade. A grande problemática do século 20 foi a da substituição dos homens, nos campos e depois nas fábricas, por máquinas. A do século 21 será sobre os cérebros, e seu campo de atuação será em grande parte o mundo dos serviços e do terceiro setor.
Isso não significa que será o fim do trabalho, mas sim sua transformação em um movimento social amplo que enfraquece as classes médias dos países mais avançados e, portanto, aumenta asdesigualdades.
Mas a evolução não terminou, pois a tecnologia, do GPS até os diagnósticos de todo tipo, também dá mais competências a mais pessoas, que talvez se tornem as futuras classes médias. Uma outra sociedade está sendo criada de forma sofrida, e mesmo o Hubo seria incapaz de esboçar sua cara para nós.

Sunday, 24 August 2014

The Art of Ofey: Richard Feynman’s Little-Known Sketches & Drawings

brain picking
http://www.brainpickings.org/index.php/2013/01/17/richard-feynman-ofey-sketches-drawings/


The Art of Ofey: Richard Feynman’s Little-Known Sketches & Drawings

by 
“I wanted to convey an emotion I have about the beauty of the world…this feeling about the glories of the universe.”
Just like Sylvia Plath and Queen Victoria, Nobel-winning physicist Richard Feynman— champion of scientific culturegraphic novel herocrusader for integrityholder of the key to scienceadviser of future generationsbongo player — was a surprisingly gifted semi-secret artist. He started drawing at the age of 44 in 1962, shortly after developing the visual language for his famous Feynman diagrams, after a series of amicable arguments about art vs. science with his artist-friend Jirayr “Jerry” Zorthian — the same friend to whom Feynman’s timeless ode to a flower was in response. Eventually, the two agreed that they’d exchange lessons in art and science on alternate Sundays. Feynman went on to draw — everything from portraits of other prominent physicists and his children to sketches of strippers and very, very many female nudes — until the end of his life.
The Art of Richard P. Feynman: Images by a Curious Character (UKpublic library) collects a quarter century of Feynman’s drawings, curated by his daughter Michelle, beginning with his first sketches of the human figure in 1962 and ending in 1987, the year before his death.
Dancer at Gianonni's Bar (1968)
In an introductory essay titled “But Is It Art?,” Feynman recounts his arrangement with Jerry and observes the intersection of art and science:
I wanted very much to learn to draw, for a reason that I kept to myself: I wanted to convey an emotion I have about the beauty of the world. It’s difficult to describe because it’s an emotion. It’s analogous to the feeling one has in religion that has to do with a god that controls everything in the universe: there’s a generality aspect that you feel when you think about how things that appear so different and behave so differently are all run ‘behind the scenes’ by the same organization, the same physical laws. It’s an appreciation of the mathematical beauty of nature, of how she works inside; a realization that the phenomena we see result from the complexity of the inner workings between atoms; a feeling of how dramatic and wonderful it is. It’s a feeling of awe — of scientific awe — which I felt could be communicated through a drawing to someone who had also had that emotion. I could remind him, for a moment, of this feeling about the glories of the universe.
Female Posing (1968)
Equations and Sketches (1985)
Martha Bridges (1965)
Hans Bethe (date N/A)
Michelle Feynman (1981)
Sketch with Last Line by Carl Feynman, age 2 (1962)
Once Feynman decided to sell the drawings upon a friend’s suggestion, he was cautious of people fetishizing them because of his academic prominence and the sheer curiosity of a distinguished scientist who dabbles in art, so he decided to adopt a pseudonym: Ofey. Feynman explains the origin:
My friend Dudley Wright suggested ‘Au Fait,’ which means ‘It is done’ in French. I spelled it O-f-e-y, which turned out to be a name the blacks used for ‘whitey.’ But after all, I was whitey, so it was all right.
From Behind (1985)
Jirayr Zorthian (date N/A)
Nude from the Rear (1979)
Nude Sleeping (1975)
Portrait of a Stripper (1969)
In the introductory essay, Feynman also considers the differences in teaching art and teaching science, a disconnect Isaac Asimov has famously addressed in his passionate case for creativity in science education. Feynman writes:
I noticed that the teacher didn’t tell people much (the only thing he told me was my picture was too small on the page). Instead, he tried to inspire us to experiment with new approaches. I thought of how we teach physics: We have so many techniques—so many mathematical methods—that we never stop telling the students how to do things. On the other hand, the drawing teacher is afraid to tell you anything. If your lines are very heavy, the teacher can’t say, “Your lines are too heavy.” because some artist has figured out a way of making great pictures using heavy lines. The teacher doesn’t want to push you in some particular direction. So the drawing teacher has this problem of communicating how to draw by osmosis and not by instruction, while the physics teacher has the problem of always teaching techniques, rather than the spirit, of how to go about solving physical problems.
1 Minute Line Drawing (1985)
Portrait of a Woman (1983)
Sheet of Studies (date N/A)
Rufus (1985)
Richard Feynman's First Drawing (1962)
Though The Art of Richard P. Feynman: Images by a Curious Character is sadly long out of print and thus a collector’s item, you can find the essay “But Is It Art” in the fantastic 1985 anthology Surely You’re Joking, Mr. Feynman! (Adventures of a Curious Character).

Sunday, 3 August 2014

A Short Illustrated History of Nearly Everything

brain pickings
http://www.brainpickings.org/index.php/2010/11/10/a-short-history-of-nearly-everything-illustrated/


A Short Illustrated History of Nearly Everything

by 
What charcoal has to do with democracy, equality and the cultural necessity for absurdity.
A couple of weeks ago, after raving about one of our all-time favorite books, Bill Bryson’s A Short History of Nearly Everything, reader Ian Shepherd alerted us to the recent publication of an illustrated version of the book. Needless to say, A Short History of Nearly Everything: Special Illustrated Edition is just as fantastic as you’d expect.
Today, courtesy of Ian’s photographic skills, we take a peek inside as we await our copy in the mail:
For the uninitiated, the book is a captivating exploration of how life evolved and how we humans came to make sense of it all. In 600 pages, Bryson offers a manifesto for scientific thought, written in a way that non-scientists can not merely understand but be swept away by, absorbing the author’s keen insight and chuckling at his well-timed wryness.
“This is a book about how it happened. In particular how we went from there being nothing at all to there being something, and then how a little of that something turned into us, and also what happened in between and since.” ~Bill Bryson
A Short History of Nearly Everything: Special Illustrated Edition is currently 34% off on Amazon but wherever you choose to grab it, the important thing is that you do — it’s eye and brain candy of the best kind.

Images by Ian Shepherd

Tuesday, 29 July 2014

Turma de Pedagogia tem aula de campo interdisciplinar em Poconé

ufmt
http://www.ufmt.br/ufmt/site/perfil/noticia/Cuiaba/aluno/16939/graduacao

Turma de Pedagogia tem aula de campo interdisciplinar em Poconé

A turma do terceiro ano do curso de Pedagogia da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), campus de Cuiabá, participou de uma aula de campo na Base Avançada de Pesquisa do Pantanal (BAPP), na baía as Pedras, em Poconé (MT), na quarta-feira (2), no reinício do primeiro semestre letivo 2014. De forma integrada e interdisciplinar, foram abordados diversos aspectos que envolvem o bioma pantaneiro.
Os professores Marcos Caron, Antônio Luiz e Regina Silva, das disciplinas Fundamentos e Metodologia do ensino de Geografia, Fundamentos e Metodologia do ensino de História e Fundamentos e Metodologia do ensino de Ciências Naturais, respectivamente, aliaram teoria a prática.
O grupo de alunos participou ainda de uma aula no Centro de Interpretação Ambiental, borboletário e formigueiro, no Sesc Pantanal, e conheceram algumas coleções entomológicas.
O borboletário é uma das atrações que encantam quem conhece o complexo turístico na cidade de Poconé. Uma grande gaiola de 300 metros quadrados, com cerca de 3 mil borboletas de 20 espécies diferentes, o borboletário faz parte do “eixo ambiental”, composto também por um formigueiro, uma coleção entomológica e o Centro de Interpretação Ambiental.
Formado por recipientes e tubos transparentes, o formigueiro do Sesc Pantanal reproduz o ambiente das colônias de formiga. Pelos cânulos, é possível acompanhar a organização social do inseto, inclusive, o transporte de material para os ninhos e o corte de vegetais.

Pesquisas na Base Avançada do Pantanal serão mostradas no Globo Universidade sábado

ufmt
http://www.ufmt.br/ufmt/site/perfil/noticia/Cuiaba/aluno/11483/graduacao

Pesquisas na Base Avançada do Pantanal serão mostradas no Globo Universidade sábado

No próximo sábado (22), o programa Globo Universidade, veiculado na TV Globo, exibirá uma reportagem sobre a Base Avançada de Pesquisas do Pantanal (BAPP), que irá ao ar às 7h. A reportagem divulgará ações da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT) no Pantanal Mato-Grossense, e o trabalho de campo desenvolvido pelos pesquisadores.
A BAPP, vinculada à Pró-Reitoria de Pesquisa (PROPeq) da UFMT, está localizada na Baía das Pedras, a 40 km do município de Poconé, em área cedida à UFMT pelo Sesc Pantanal. 
A Base, construída com recursos da Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (Finep), tem por objetivo dar apoio logístico aos grupos de pesquisa que atuam na região, recebendo também pesquisadores de outras instituições do Brasil e também do exterior.
Durante as gravações, que foram realizadas nos dias 16 e 17 de abril, a equipe de jornalistas da TV Globo foi acompanhada pelo coordenador de Pesquisa da UFMT, professor Alexandre Cunha Ribeiro, pelo assistente de Gabinete, técnico Ciríaco Pires de Miranda, pelos pesquisadores que lá desenvolvem trabalhos, pelo Sesc Pantanal e pela Gerência de Transportes da UFMT. 
O programa "Globo Universidade" visa mostrar "o que há de melhor no país em termos de ensino, pesquisa e extensão desenvolvidos pelas universidades brasileiras".
Após a exibição, no dia 22, a matéria ficará disponível no site do programa.

Natural Histories: 500 Years of Rare Science Illustrations

brain pickings
http://www.brainpickings.org/index.php/2012/11/27/natural-histories/


Natural Histories: 500 Years of Rare Science Illustrations

by 
A lavish celebration of the intersection of art, science, and technology.
Natural Histories: Extraordinary Rare Book Selections from the American Museum of Natural History Library (public library) brings together an extraordinary collection of works from the Rare Book Room and Rare Book Collections of the American Museum of Natural History’s Research Library, spanning five centuries of anthropology, astronomy, earth science, paleontology, and zoology representing all seven continents. Each highlighted work is accompanied by a short essay exploring its significance, what makes it rare — scarcity, uniqueness, age, binding type, size, value, or nature of the illustrations — and its place in natural history.
Étienne de Flacourt (1607-1660)
Flaucourt's illustrations of animals include the small Madagascar hippopotamus (top row, second from right)
Louis Renard (1678-1746)
Although there are many coloration and anatomical errors in these drawings, many of the specimens depicted can be identified as actual animals. In this plate, all the specimens can be identified to genus, and some even to species.
Tom Baione, who oversees AMNH’s library and who edited the collection, notes in the introduction:
The stories behind the works selected, these natural histories, not only tell the story of the history of science and art over the last five hundred years, but also of the advances and revelations of science and technology during the age of print. While still tools for science, these works endure as small monuments to the achievements and struggles involved in the study of natural science over the centuries.
Louis Renard (1678-1746)
Some of the specimens are described by their edibility and are accompanied by recipes. For example, the bliangh (bandfish) is described as 'very good but full of bones and very hairy. The chinese like it very much when steamed with garlic and pepper.'
Moses Harris (1731-1785)
Color wheel from Exposition, 1782. A hand-painted version of the Harris color wheel (the modern color wheel).
(For a related treat, see Goethe’s theory of colors.)
What makes many of these illustrations particularly fascinating is that they represent a brief slice of history in the evolution of visual representation — after the advent of photography in the early 20th century, many of these lavish artistic illustrations were supplanted by photographic images, which shifted science to a much more aesthetically sterile approach to describing and depicting species. They’re also a heartening and enduring example of the magic that lies at the intersection of art and science as scientists not only sought out the best artists to illustrate their articles, but also versed themselves in drawing and produced exquisite artworks of their own.
Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London
The young hippopotamus Obayasch (1849-1878) in the Cairo garden of the British Consulate, awaiting transportation to the London Zoo. The consul, Mr. Murray, described the hippo as being as playful as a Newfoundland puppy. Joseph Wolf, the Zoological Society's principal artist, painted the charming youngster from a sketch.
Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Herbst (1743-1807)
Zosimus aeneus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Cancer amphitrite, Herbst, 1801). Widely distributed throughout the Indo Pacific and common on reef flats, both its shell and meat contain neurotoxins and its poison can be fatal.
Alexander Wilson (1766-1813)
'Owl Copper.' The engraver Alexander Lawson transferred Wilson's drawings to copper plates, which were then printed and hand colored by artists.
Prince Maximilian zu Wied (1782-1867)
The horned frog Ceratophrys aurita (Raddi, 1823). Wied named the genus Ceratophrys in 1824, but placement of Raddi's earlier name Bufo auritus in that genus replaced Wied's synonymous species name dorsata and varius.
André-Marie-Constant Duméril (1774-1860), Gabriel Bibron (1806-1848), and Auguste Henri André Duméril (1812-1870)
The Python sebae (African rock python) is Africa's largest snake, with specimens reported to exceed 20 feet. This species is often an ambush feeder, striking and holding its prey with its jaws and then killing it by suffocation using its powerful body muscles to constrict. Prey include rodents, monkeys, antelopes, monitor lizards, and even crocodiles.
Aleide Dessalines d'Orbigny (1802-1857)
D'Orbingy saved the mammal section of the book for last, but other work overwhelmed him and the mammal descriptions went very brief. The black0capped squirrel monkey seen here is found in Bolivia, where it lives in large groups and subsists mainly on arthropods.
Jules-Sébastien-César Dumont d'Urville (1790-1842)
'Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae).' Voyages of exploration almost always had a commercial side, and the French and British alike were interested in developing sealing and whaling in the southern ocean. By the 1840s, slow, easily hunted species like right whales had become rare, and whalers were turning to other prey such as humpbacks.
Daniel Giraud Elliot (1835-1915)
This species, Diphyllodes respublica, is restricted to two small islands, Waigeo and Batanta, west of mainland New Guinea. Both sexes have blue bare skin on their crown. In the nineteenth century artists had little information about mating behavior of birds of paradise, and the poses depicted are incorrect. instead, the male displays on small vertical branches near the ground.
The most striking element of Haeckel’s illustrations inKunstformen der Natur is the startling arrangement of the life forms depicted — especially the microscopic subjects. it appears almost as if some unseen magnetic force had aligned them and arranged each in perfect position for viewing. This maximized the real estate on the paper and allowed the greatest number of related organisms to be studied and admired. While the result was artistic, the intention was educational and scientific. For Haeckel, illustrating and sharing his observations was a way to convey knowledge and information about the natural world. While some scientists observed and described connections between similar forms and functions to show relatedness between animals, Haeckel’s vision and documentary skills went a step further, illustrating similar creatures together, so that anyone — scientists or not — could clearly see their relatedness. As a fervent believer in Darwinian evolutionary theory, he merely pointed out to his viewers the logic of the theory by providing them with a view by which they could see the obvious connections for themselves.
Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919), Kunstformen der Natur (Art Forms of Nature)
Haeckel labeled these organisms 'Aspidonia,' a name no longer used. The grouping here includes members of the classes Merostomata and Trilobita. Most of these organisms are long extinct, except for those belonging to the class Merostomata, which includes the horseshoe crab.
Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919), Kunstformen der Natur (Art Forms of Nature)
Asteridea is the subclass of echinoderms that includes the sea stars. While slow moving, they are high-level predators and feed on other invertebrates, including mollusks and barnacles.
The book comes in a beautiful slip-case containing 40 stunning, frame-ready prints:
Thoughtfully curated and lavishly produced, Natural Histories is the finest celebration of natural history since A Glorious Enterprise.